Human anatomy is full of surprises

Scientists - anthropologists, psychologists and others - have accumulated a huge amount of amazing discoveries. American anthropologist Dr. Stephen Juan, who teaches anthropology and social disciplines at the University of Sydney, has published a series of books "Entertaining Anatomy", where he spoke about scientific facts, funny and useful, discovered not so long ago.

And the science journalist Jennifer Eckerman, who writes for the New York Times and National Geografic, who became practically a scientist herself through close communication with scientists, wrote A Brief History of the Human Body. We took the most interesting of their books.

1. FATAL SEDUCERS AND DICTATORS ARE BORN WITH TEETH

Babies are usually born without teeth. This is what nature has ordered so that the mother, when feeding, does not reject the baby when she is breastfeeding. But here's the fact: about one in two thousand babies are born with one erupted tooth. And then his feeding turns into sheer torment for the mother. She automatically tries to feed him less often, less and generally weaned him earlier. A baby just has to fight to eat.

From infancy, a complex of what is not accepted into the world is formed in him. And then, in adulthood, he tries to conquer it. Anthropologists have established that most of the world's dictatorial leaders were born with an erupted tooth. Julius Caesar, Hannibal, Napoleon, Mussolini, Hitler ...

The pain of breastfeeding prevented mothers from giving these babies enough love. Therefore, such babies not only strive to conquer everyone and everything, but are also very jealous. They are afraid to lose love, and therefore Don Juans of both sexes grow out of them, who want to be loved by more people. So they don't necessarily go into politics. They can go to the actors or just "rustle" other people's hearts in everyday life.

2. SALAMI CREATES A SENSE OF LOVE, AND ALCOHOL IN SMALL DOSES STIMULATES CREATIVITY

In a creative environment, drinking alcohol is very common. And all why? It turns out that it stimulates the right hemisphere of the brain, which is responsible for imagination, visual images and non-standard creative moves. And at the initial stage of use, it promotes creative discoveries.

And the left hemisphere, responsible for logic and memory, associated with responsibility and accuracy of details, plunges into a daze. Therefore, an excess of alcohol creates a special kind of creativity - absolutely meaningless. Some scientists say that people who have a dominant left hemisphere, it is even helpful to sometimes relax with a glass or two and turn on the right hemisphere.

It is also useful to eat salami, which contains three times more phenylethylamine than chocolate. This is a mood-lifting substance, and with the participation of brain cells, which are designed to work when in love.

3. TIGHTLY TIGHTENED TIE AFFECTS VISION

Our eyes work harder than any other organ. To understand what kind of load they have, imagine that you have to walk 80 kilometers in a day. Yes, my legs will fall off from such an impossible task! But the eyes do not fall off. Meanwhile, our visual acuity depends on a bunch of factors.

For example, a tie that is tightly tightened can affect your eyesight. American scientists in the course of many years of research have found that in 67% of men, visual impairment is associated precisely with a tightly tightened collar. Because this restricts blood flow to the eyes, it also affects blood pressure, which in turn also affects visual acuity.

And scientists advise to breathe deeply and evenly through the nose. This allows us to get more oxygen, which our eyes need so much. It has been proven that those who breathe correctly (through the nose and deeply) and do not smoke have better vision and last longer.

4. IF OF Laughing Frequently, DOCTORS MUST NOT WALK

We start laughing at the age of 12 weeks. Laughter is the highest form of defensiveness. Freud believed that laughter helped us cope with lustful thoughts. And Charles Darwin generally singled out laughter as an important role in evolutionary development. They say it relieves stress and helps restore mental stability. Without laughter, we would all have gone mad long ago and would not have made any progress.

Dr. Norman Cousins ​​discovered that laughter helps restore health. And therefore, for example, in America, in hospitals, rooms for laughter therapy and chambers of fun are open. How does this happen? Biochemically, laughter suppresses the production of cortisol, which negatively affects the immune system.

Laughter increases metabolism, stimulates muscle tissue and releases a lot of positive hormones into the blood. Laughter prevents depression, heart disease, and increases pain thresholds. And, of course, it strengthens the immune system in general. There is even a saying that if you laugh every day, you won't need a doctor.

One of the latest studies has shown that laughing significantly increases the concentration of salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA). These are antibodies associated with resistance to upper respiratory disease. In general, perhaps one day the times will come when instead of a doctor they will start sending for a clown.

5. WILL SLEEP IN TWO PHASES, LIVE WILL BECOME MORE HARMONIOUS

Does it ever happen that you wake up in the middle of the night and cannot sleep for an hour or two? Toss and turn and think that this is insomnia, and even fight it. But in fact, this is normal for the human body - a break in the middle of the night to stay awake. Anthropologist Carol Wortman of Emory University has discovered that you need to sleep in two or even three phases.

The notion accepted in the modern world that one should sleep continuously all night long is wrong. For example, in cultures far from civilization, people still go to bed at sunset, then wake up at midnight and talk about everything for an hour or two, even dance, make love, laugh by the fire, meditate, pray and go to bed again. ...

But the electric light knocked our biological charts off. But in the Middle Ages, special brochures were even published for the nobility, which told what to do during the night wakefulness break. European doctors of those times, for example, recommended sleeping on the right side during the first sleep, and on the left during the second sleep. This, in their opinion, improved digestion. Animals, by the way, sleep in several stages.

Thomas Wehr, a psychiatrist from the United States, conducted an experiment. I put the subjects in natural conditions, without electricity, and began to follow their schedule. At first, they slept continuously for 11 hours, and then their sleep also split into two phases. They fell asleep for four hours, then woke up, stayed awake for two hours, and fell asleep again for four hours.

After the experiment, the volunteers began to feel more harmonious, calmer, their creativity and imagination improved. However, maybe it happened also because they lived in natural conditions and in complete safety on everything ready. In any of us, I think, in such a situation, complete harmony would come in the soul.

WHAT ELSE DID THE SCIENTISTS DISCOVER

You are healthy if you are able to understand another person.

Psychiatrists and psychologists have invented many ways to find out if a person is healthy. There are a lot of criteria for mental health. But all tests have some flaws. And the main one is that you need to know the theory well in order to apply this or that more or less serious test in life. And any testing takes time. (Some stretch out all day.)

So, scientists have derived one simple criterion for a mentally healthy person. It sounds both simple and complex at the same time: if you can accurately understand the other person's point of view, you are healthy.

Talents are revealed in the fifth ten

By the way, scientists also believe that the flourishing of a person's intellectual life, as well as his psychological abilities, are fully capable of revealing themselves in the early fifties. At forty, the most interesting thing in life is just beginning. Both men and women.

Lack of sleep and fame can die

A physiologically healthy person can die from lack of sleep. You just need to stay awake for four days. Death from lack of sleep is preceded by complete disorientation and insanity. But, by the way, the fear of death is far from the worst. Only 31% of people are mortally afraid of death. And as many as 45% are scared to death to speak in public. This is the so-called halophobia. So for almost half of the world's population, five minutes of fame can at least cause severe neurosis.

The wounded in the heart don't always die

And more interesting facts about death. There is a widespread belief that if you stab a person in the heart, he will die. But this is not the case. Doctors testify that most of those wounded in the heart survive.

And also short people live longer. How to explain this, scientists do not yet know.