Basics of AK-47 shooting and a brief theory for a beginner. But first, a little about the terms:
A shot is the ejection of a bullet from the bore under the action of the powder gases formed during the combustion of the powder charge. From the impact of the striker on the cartridge primer, a flame arises, igniting the powder charge. In this case, a large amount of highly heated gases are formed, which create a high pressure acting in all directions with the same force. At a gas pressure of 250–500 kg / cm? the bullet moves from its place and crashes into the rifling of the barrel, receiving a rotational motion. The gunpowder continues to burn, therefore, the amount of gases increases. Then, due to the rapid increase in the speed of the bullet, the volume of the bullet space increases faster than the influx of new gases, and the pressure begins to drop. However, the speed of the bullet in the bore continues to increase, as the gases, albeit to a lesser extent, still press on it. The bullet moves along the bore with a continuously increasing speed and is thrown outward along the axis of the bore. The entire process of firing occurs in a very short period of time (0, 001–0.06 s). Further, the flight of the bullet in the air continues by inertia and largely depends on its initial velocity.
The initial velocity of the bullet is the velocity at which the bullet leaves the bore. The magnitude of the initial velocity of the bullet depends on the length of the barrel, the mass of the bullet, the mass of the powder charge and other factors. An increase in the initial velocity increases the range of the bullet, its penetrating and lethal effect, and reduces the influence of external conditions on its flight.
The movement of the weapon backward during the shot is called recoil. The pressure of the powder gases in the bore acts in all directions with the same force. The pressure of the gases on the bottom of the bullet forces it to move forward, and the pressure on the bottom of the sleeve is transmitted to the bolt and causes the weapon to move backward. When recoil, a pair of forces is formed, under the influence of which the muzzle of the weapon is deflected upward. The recoil force acts along the axis of the barrel bore, and the butt rest on the shoulder and the center of gravity of the weapon are located below the direction of this force, therefore, when firing, the muzzle of the weapon deviates upward.
The recoil of small arms is felt as a shock to the shoulder, arm or the ground. The recoil action of a weapon is characterized by the amount of speed and energy that it possesses when moving backward. The recoil speed of the weapon is approximately as many times less than the initial speed of the bullet, how many times the bullet is lighter than the weapon. The recoil energy of the Kalashnikov assault rifle is small and painlessly perceived by the shooter. Correct and uniform holding of the weapon reduces the impact of recoil and increases the effectiveness of shooting. The presence of muzzle brakes-compensators or compensators in the weapon improves the results of firing bursts and reduces recoil.
At the time of the shot, the barrel of the weapon, depending on the elevation angle, takes a certain position. The flight of a bullet in the air begins in a straight line representing the continuation of the axis of the bore at the moment the bullet leaves. This line is called the line of throw. When flying in the air, two forces act on the bullet: gravity and air resistance. The force of gravity increasingly deflects the bullet downward from the line of throw, and the force of air resistance slows down the movement of the bullet. Under the influence of these two forces, the bullet continues to fly in a curve below the line of throw. The shape of the trajectory depends on the magnitude of the elevation angle and the initial velocity of the bullet, it affects the magnitude of the range of a direct shot, covered, hit and dead space. With an increase in the elevation angle, the trajectory height and the total horizontal range of the bullet increase, but this occurs up to a certain limit. Beyond this limit, the trajectory height continues to increase and the total horizontal range decreases.
The elevation angle at which the total horizontal range of the bullet becomes the greatest is called the angle of the greatest range. The magnitude of the angle of the greatest range for bullets of various types of weapons is about 35 °.
Trajectories obtained at elevation angles less than the angle of greatest range are called flat.
A direct shot is a shot in which the trajectory of the bullet does not rise above the line of sight above the target along its entire length.
The direct shot range depends on the height of the target and the flatness of the trajectory. The higher the target and the flatter the trajectory, the greater the range of a direct shot and, therefore, the distance at which the target can be hit with a single sight setting. The practical value of a direct shot is that in tense moments of battle, shooting can be carried out without rearranging the sight, while the aiming point in height will be selected along the lower edge of the target.
The space behind a bullet-proof cover, from its crest to the meeting point, is called a covered space.
The covered space is the larger, the higher the shelter and the flatter the trajectory. The part of the covered space in which the target cannot be hit with a given trajectory is called dead (unaffected) space. The higher the height of the cover, the lower the height of the target, and the flatter the trajectory, the larger it is. Another part of the covered area in which the target can be hit is the hit area.