"Planet X" or "9 Planet" of the Solar System. Does she exist?

Search for planets in outer space is an extremely difficult occupation. Unlike stars, they do not have significant radiation, so their detection is possible by changing the glow of the maternal star or on the gravitational influence on other space objects. The proof of the difficulty of their location is the incessant dispute of scientists around the undetected massive space object of the planetary type, located in the distance from the other planets of the solar system.

This is interesting: "9 Planet" or "Planet X" - two different names of the same hypothetical planet. The difference lies only in the fact that in the beautiful and mystical name "Planet X" Pluto is considered the 9th planet, and X is the Latin number 10. But some astronomers believe that in the solar system so far only 8 planets, because Pluto has a too low mass for this title, and the unopened hypothetical planet will become a ninth.

In 1846, the German astronomer Johann Gottfried Halle, using the Newtonian mechanics and the calculations of French Mathematics Urbena Levelier, analyzed the strange perturbations of the orbit of uranium. As a result, he suggested that another planet should be hidden behind uranium. In the same year, Halle and his student managed to calculate the location and discover the planet unknown to this moment - Neptune. Subsequently, studying the orbits of uranium and Neptune, astronomers revealed strange deviations, which could only say that another planet was hidden.

The search for transneptunovy planets captured the minds astronomer of the whole world, but the most large-scale searches organized a rich businessman and an astronomer from Boston Percival Lowell in 1894. By building an advanced telescope for that time for that time, he spent 22 years of his life to find the hypothetical "planet X", as he himself called her astronomer. Interestingly, in those days the letter X, he really attached shades of mysteriousness and mystics, but in the distant future, this name acquired a completely different meaning. The obsessive idea to find a mysterious planet that influenced the orbits of the famous solar sites, morally and physically exhausted Lowell, and in 1916 he died, and his unique observatory was abandoned for many years due to the struggle for the inheritance of a businessman.

Only in 1925, the renewed telescope again raised his lenses in the starry sky in search of an escort planet. This time, research was headed by a 22-year-old farmer, showing unexpected talent in astronomy, Clyde Tombo. The results of his painstaking work led to the fact that on February 18, 1930 he opened Pluto.

It is interesting: Lower Stubbornness of Lowell caused in the ranks of other astronomers smiles and laughter - they were confident that the transneptunova planet does not exist. When the planet was still detected, and in the very region of the solar system where Lowell was looking for her, the scientific world recognized the rightness of an amateur astronomer. In the title of Pluto, the two first letters "pl" are the initials of Persiv Lowell.

The treasured scientific community began to calculate the parameters of the pluto, relying on the data on the disturbances caused to them in the orbits of other planets. On the telescopes of that time, Pluto looked barely noticeable pale dot. Scientists embarrassed the size of the planet detected and its small luminosity, but given its powerful gravitational impact, they suggested that Pluto must have been a very dense and massive planet with a small reflection of light.

But the farther into the future, the more perfect methods of observation of Pluto became, and the more clearly it became that this object does not have a large mass or a large value. Ultimately, when it turned out that the mass of the pluto was equal to only 0, 22% of the mass of the land, and they were excluded at all from the list of planets and recognized that Pluto could not affect the deviations of the orbits of uranium and Neptune. I got Lowell - his guess about the location of the planet X is in that region where Pluto was, recognized as accidental.

For many years, the search for 9 planets of the solar system has become amateur astronomers. And in 1980, the probability of its existence fell to a minimum: with the use of modern gravitational theories and computer systems, repeated calculations of the perturbations of the orbits of uranium and Neptune, which showed that these perturbations are extremely small and, are quite likely to be within the limits of statistical error. Interest in finding an unknown planet of the solar system is finally went out. But everything changed the discovery in 1987 a belt of the bed.

Koiper belt is the area of ​​the solar system from the orbit of Neptune, which is located at a distance of 30 AE. from the sun to 55 AE.

This is interesting: AE. - Astronomical unit. 1 Astronomical unit is equal to 149 597 870, 7 km.

The coiper belt is filled with many small space objects remaining, probably since the formation of the solar system, when the planets faced and spinled in the majestic waltz, forming their orbits around the sun. Over time, the remaining "building material", the remaining "building material" was thrown into the zone called the cigarette belt. By the way, Pluto one of the first figured to the objects of the Koiper belt, assigning him the title of dwarf planet.

Having received modern telescopes, astronomers were able to see in the belt of the coper hundreds of new objects of a small value, to see which before that was impossible. But it is strange - the orbits of some of them ran a very unusual way, while others were not rotated at all in the direction in which they should have been! Is there really an influence of the very "planet X"?

But on this question, scientists still can not give an answer. Every year, all new observations and calculations are held, the search area of ​​the planet is gradually narrows, the meager perturbations of the orbits of uranium and neptune are taken into account, differences from the calculated trajectories of the movement of spacecraft, published beyond the solar system and thousands of other parameters, but it does not bring success. But the scientists were able to calculate the possible parameters of an unknown planet of the Solar System: Most likely, it is a gas giant with a mass of 10-20 terrestrial and has a radius exceeding our planet of 4-5 times. The period of rotation of the 9th planet around the Sun is about 15, 000 gloves, and the removal from our star can be about 200 AE. Computer simulation of the solar system shows that theoretically in 4 or 5 cases out of 20, 000 such a planet could form and be captured by the Sun, but, as can be seen, the chances of this are extremely small. But nevertheless, some scientists continue to believe in its existence. From the latest news - objects, the specific angle of inclination of which can tell us about the gravitational effect on them of a certain massive cosmic body, are found in the hide belt.

Nevertheless, if the planet X exists, can it behave in any way to the Earth? Of course, the gravitational forces of any space objects are sampled and affected by other objects, but the distance to the planet X is so large that any sensitive effect on the Earth or other planets of the solar system is absolutely excluded. And even more so do not wait for the end of the world, assigning this to the planet mystical properties like a famous Nibir. In any case, even with the presence of the 9th planet, our solar system - the mechanism working as hours and formed the unique living conditions for the existence of human civilization with billions of years.

Illustration: Depositphotos | Suzbah