The name of this wine (yes, champagne is a sparkling wine) comes from the French province of Champagne, where grapes were grown in the 3rd century. The wines produced there had one very unpleasant tendency to secondary fermentation in barrels, which sometimes exploded, for which the wine from Champagne was called "devilish".
The French Benedictine monk of the Abbey of Hauteville Pierre Perignon, who lived in the 17th century, invented to combine the juices of different grape varieties, and began to pour wine into bottles with plugs made of cork oak bark, which made it possible to retain carbon dioxide, which had previously exploded barrels.
In 1800, the pharmacist François of Chalon invented a modern bottle that also takes into account the thickness and shape, not just the color of the glass.
Winemaker Victor Lambert developed a fermentation technology in 1874 that converts tartaric acid into lactic acid. Thanks to this, brut appeared - a very dry champagne, which soon became the most popular variety in the world.
In accordance with the Madrid Treaty (1891), only sparkling wine produced in France, in the Champagne province, has the right to bear the patented name - "Champagne".
According to the sugar content, champagne is distinguished: brut (up to 0.3%), the driest (0.8%), dry (3%), semi-dry (5%), semi-sweet (8%), sweet (10%). Bottled champagne is labeled "aged".
The pressure in a champagne bottle is about 6.3 kilograms per square centimeter (for a 0.75 liter bottle, 0.63 MPa), which is about three times that of a car tire and is equal to about 6 pressures at sea level. The pressure depends on the size of the bottle; the larger the bottle, the greater the pressure.
The average bottle of champagne "contains" about 250 million bubbles. It is believed that in a glass of good champagne, bubbles form within 10-20 hours after opening the bottle.
Real champagne glasses have inner walls with a microscopic embossed layer so that the bubbles stick to the walls.
The tradition of pouring champagne on the winners of the competition was invented by the racer Dan Garney. It was he who in 1967, having become the winner of a series of auto races, opened the bottle presented to him in hearts and made a fountain of this drink.
In 1965, Piper-Heidsieck created the largest bottle of champagne in the world - 1 m 82 cm, exactly the height of the American film actor Rex Harrison. The bottle was intended to celebrate Harrison's Oscar for his role in My Fair Lady.