The first documentary mention of the Black Sea dates back to the 5th century BC. According to ancient Greek mythology, it was along the Black Sea that the Argonauts went to Colchis for the golden fleece. True, the ancient Greeks themselves called the Black Sea differently - Pontus Aksinsky, which literally means “Inhospitable Sea”. This was due to the fact that navigation on it was difficult due to frequent storms.
Why was this sea called the Black Sea? There are many versions. According to one of them, the sea got its name due to the fact that metal objects that have been at a depth quickly turn black, since the water here is saturated with hydrogen sulfide. Therefore, any life in the Black Sea at a depth of over 200 meters is practically absent.
Eight thousand years ago, there was a large freshwater lake on the site of the sea. But, at the end of the Ice Age, the level of the World Ocean rose sharply, therefore, the lake was filled with salt water. The freshwater inhabitants naturally perished.
Even in our time, the salinity of the Black Sea water is much lower than in other seas. It is, in the upper layers, only 18 ppm, in the lower a little more - 22 ppm. For comparison, the salinity of the neighboring Mediterranean Sea is 37 ppm.
There are only two shark species in the Black Sea. This is a katran and a cat shark. The largest representatives of these species are no more than two meters long. They are absolutely not dangerous for people. At least not a single case of shark attacks on people in the Black Sea has been recorded.
It is curious that there are no large islands in the Black Sea. Dzharylgach has the largest area of them - only 62 square kilometers. None of these islands currently have a permanent population.
The area of the Black Sea is increasing. For every century, the water level rises by 20-25 centimeters. Many cities of the Taman Peninsula that existed before our era are currently under water.
At the bottom of the Black Sea there is a huge number of sunken ships. Since shipping here was developed more than two thousand years ago, no one can name the exact number of ships that crashed.
Until now, it has not been possible to find the sunken collection of wines of Vasily Tairov, the founder of the production of champagne in our country. The famous winemaker died in 1938, his collection was declared the property of the USSR. In 1941, shortly after the start of the Great Patriotic War, it was decided to evacuate the valuable cargo from Odessa. He was loaded onto a barge, which came under enemy bombardment and sank about 150 km away. from Odessa. Searches for a wine collection were undertaken more than once, but they all ended in failure.
For over 20 years, the International Black Sea Day has been celebrated. On October 31, 1996, six countries - Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania and Turkey - signed the Strategic Plan, which provides for joint actions to rehabilitate and protect the Black Sea.