Today, as well as several hundred years ago, many scientists disagree on which is the longest river in the world, some confidently claim that the Nile, while others are confident that the Amazon. But after long calculations, we can say for sure that the longest river in the world is the Amazon River, but the Nile, which flows in Africa, is the second longest and the first on the continent. The length of the Nile reaches 6671 kilometers. The Nile originates in Burundi, while it flows from a key in the Luvironza arm, through the Kagera river system. When the Nile begins to flow into the Mediterranean Sea, it forms a huge delta that stretches along the 250 kilometers long coastline.
In addition to all this, the Nile is the only river that flows through the famous Sahara desert, with all this, for three thousand kilometers, the river does not have more than one tributary and brings its waters directly to the Mediterranean Sea. Water discharge in the river is not constant and varies quite widely.
It is interesting that the Greek geographers called the mouth of the Nile "delta", who compared its triangular shape with the letter Δ of the Greek alphabet, thus giving the name to all river deltas of the globe.
A hot and dry climate prevails on the territory of Africa, therefore the Nile is of great national economic importance for those countries that are located in the river basin. Since ancient times, the waters of the Nile River have been used for irrigation, water supply, shipping and fishing.
The Nile land (gef), or dried silt, reaches up to 8 m in thickness in Upper Egypt, up to 4.5 m in Cairo. The thickness of the alluvial layer (Alluvion) in Egypt is from 10 to 12 m, at the beginning of the delta from 13 to 16 m. The width of the fertile strip is 15 km. Water at the time of a spill is correctly distributed throughout the cultivated soil using dams and basins.
In addition to all this, the Aswan hydroelectric power station provides almost one-half of all electricity generated throughout Egypt.
For Egypt, as well as for Sudan, the Nile is an invaluable treasure. On its shores, forming an evergreen oasis, you can see peasants and fishermen, merchants and tourists. Yet the Nile brings more than just blessed moisture to the Egyptians. In the past, disputes over the distribution of water have repeatedly sparked conflicts between Egypt and Sudan, which threatened to turn into real war.