The city of Tobolsk was founded in 1587. Three years later, it received the status of a city, for a long time it was the largest political and economic center of Siberia. In the 19th century, the importance of Tobolsk declined significantly, as it turned out to be away from the railways. Currently, the city is home to about 100, 000 people.
11 interesting facts about Tobolsk
- The city got its name from the Tobol River, which is the largest tributary of the Irtysh. The length of Tobol is more than 1500 kilometers, the river flows through the territory of two countries - Russia and Kazakhstan. But none of the researchers can explain the origin of the name of the river for sure.
- The main attraction of the city is, of course, the Tobolsk Kremlin. This is the only stone Kremlin in Siberia. In 2010, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, visiting Tobolsk, took a photo of the Kremlin. This picture was sold at a charity auction in St. Petersburg for a huge amount - 51 million rubles.
- Many legends are associated with the Tobolsk Kremlin. For example, there are rumors that numerous underground tunnels have been laid under the Kremlin, with the help of which one can either get into the Kremlin or leave it unnoticed. And these rumors are confirmed by real facts: in 1947 the Mother of God Church was blown up. The ground suddenly collapsed, underneath there were several underground passages.
- Former Emperor Nicholas II spent several months in Tobolsk with his family. They were brought here in August 1917, and in April of the following year they were transported to Yekaterinburg, where the royal family was shot. In Tobolsk, the Romanovs lived with the former governor. 100 years later, in 2018, the Museum of the Romanov Family was opened in this house. The exposition of the museum contains authentic things of Nicholas II, his wife and children.
- In 1834, the famous Russian scientist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev was born in Tobolsk. His father was the director of a local gymnasium. At this time, several Decembrists were in exile in the Tobolsk province, Mendeleev's sister Olga married one of them - Nikolai Vasilyevich Basargin, a member of the Southern Society. For Basargin, this was already his third marriage, and Olga Mendeleeva's second, she was previously married to the merchant I.P. Medvedev, who was a great-uncle to the famous poet and prose writer P.P. Ershov.
- Most of the life of Peter Ershov was also associated with Tobolsk. Here he graduated from high school, but returned after graduating from St. Petersburg University. First he was a teacher in a gymnasium, then he became a director. Mendeleev was married to Ershov's stepdaughter. The famous work of Ershov "The Little Humpbacked Horse" has been translated into 27 languages of the world.
- Another famous native of Tobolsk is the composer Alexander Alexandrovich Alyabyev. In 1825, Alyabyev was accused of the murder of the landowner Vremev and was exiled from the capital to his homeland, despite the fact that his guilt was not proven. It was during his Siberian exile that Alyabyev wrote one of his most famous works - the romance "Nightingale" to the verses of the poet Delvig.
- Robinson Crusoe, the hero of the famous work of Daniel Defoe, was born, of course, not in Tobolsk. But it turns out that in this city he spent, at the behest of Dafoe himself, eight whole months. The thing is that there is a second part of the book, which is called "The Further Adventures of Robinson Crusoe." In our country, it is known much less, although, for the Russian reader, it may be more interesting than the first book. True, Daniel Dafoe did not have a chance to visit Siberia, therefore, the description of this region looks more like a fantasy. According to the plot, Robinson Crusoe was forced to travel from Southeast Asia to Europe through all of Russia. On his way was Tobolsk, where he spent the winter. The "visit" of the city by the famous literary character did not go unnoticed; in 2007, a monument to Robinson Crusoe was erected in Tobolsk.
- In 1855, the construction of a prison castle was completed in Tobolsk. At different times, it was visited by such famous prisoners as Fyodor Dostoevsky, Vladimir Korolenko, Nikolai Chernyshevsky. Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky spent several days here in January 1850, when he was marching to the place of serving hard labor. The wives of the Decembrists who lived in Tobolsk handed the Gospel to the writer, in the binding of which money was pasted. Dostoevsky kept this book all his life.
- Seventeen kilometers from modern Tobolsk was the city of Isker, the capital of the Siberian Khanate. In October 1582 he was taken by Yermak's army. At the end of the 16th century, the city fell into desolation. Already at the beginning of the twentieth century, its location could only be determined by the remains of ancient foundations.
- The sights of ancient Tobolsk attract numerous tourists here. In 2018, the city was visited by about 400, 000 tourists, which is four times more than the population of Tobolsk itself.