The first documentary mention of Russian oil dates back to January 2, 1703. On this day, the newspaper "Vedomosti" reported on the oil found on the Sok River.
In 1745, the merchant Nabatov opened an oil refining unit on the Ukhta River. The merchant sent refined oil to Moscow in small quantities - about a thousand poods a year. After the death of the owner, the plant burned down and oil production ceased.
A little later, Nabatov, Fyodor Pryadunov took up oil production at the same Ukhta. But his career as an oil producer did not work out. Pryadunov was accused of non-payment of the tithe tax. The merchant was sent to prison, where he died two years later. His debt was 35 rubles 23 kopecks. Not much for an oil "oligarch".
For the first time, the Artemyev brothers used the transportation of oil on ships. In 1873, they installed an oil tank on the schooner "Alexander", filled in and pumped out oil using a hand pump. Before that, oil was transported in wooden barrels.
Oil production in tsarist Russia was concentrated mainly in the Caucasus - in Baku and Grozny. And the main consumers were in the central part of the state. For example, the Moscow, Petersburg, Vladimir and Saratov provinces consumed more than half of all oil products in the country.
From 1898 to 1901 Russia was the world leader in oil production. By the way, at that time only 10 countries were mined, while Russia and the USA accounted for more than 90% of the world's production of this mineral.
The main product produced from oil at that time was kerosene. Motor vehicles were not yet a mass means of transportation, therefore, gasoline was a by-product of distillation. Most of it was not used and was simply disposed of as waste.
At the end of the 19th century, Emperor Nicholas II, on the advice of Witte and Mendeleev, imposed restrictions on the export of crude oil. This was done in the interests of the development of the oil refining industry and mechanical engineering. Oil from the Caucasus went to central Russia for refining.
In 1905, the cost of oil in Russia was 25 kopecks per pood. Seven and a half million tons were mined that year.
The Revolution and the Civil War led to the decline of the mining industry in the country. But by the mid-1920s, the level of oil production reached pre-revolutionary levels.
After the Great Patriotic War, oil exploration began in the Volga region and the Urals. Already in the 70s, 45% of the oil in the USSR was produced here. Now the bulk of Russian oil is produced in Western Siberia.
The Alaska oil field has been compared in importance to the oil fields in Western Siberia and the Arabian Peninsula. Now it belongs to the United States, but just a few centuries ago it was Russian territory.