When a star, ten times more massive than our own Sun, explodes (Supernova), it leaves behind the strangest phenomenon in the universe - the Black Hole. What remains after the explosion is a heavy core of subatomic particles and is called a Neutron Star. Black holes are still poorly understood, but thanks to Einstein's theory of relativity, scientists were able to predict and calculate their appearance, size, and other physical properties. The most interesting thing is that the latest space exploration confirms these calculations.
12 interesting facts about black holes
- On April 10, 2019, participants in the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a large network of radio telescopes, showed for the first time a real image of the shadow of a black hole. The photo shows the shadow of a black hole in the center of the galaxy Messier 87 (M87) in the constellation Virgo.
- It can be small in size, but with great density. Scientists have calculated that approximately one teaspoon of a Neutron Star weighs approximately billions of tons. The gravitational pressure of this very dense object is so great that it can warp the fabric of time and space. This opinion is based on Einstein's theory that space and time flow in the same plane.
- Massive objects like the Sun warp the fabric of space and time and pull on smaller objects like the Earth. A very large Neutron Star can warp the fabric of time and space so much that even sunlight will be attracted.
- In a sense, black holes are the creators of galaxies, as they pull planets and stars towards the spiral center. Every galaxy has a Black Hole, and sometimes galaxies collide together due to the gravity of the larger black holes. In 5 billion years, the Andromeda galaxy is expected to collide with our Milky Way galaxy.
- Suppose there is a way to get a man to a black hole and to prevent the ship from being sucked in. Being near a black hole, astronauts will age only a few hours, and years will pass on Earth. And all because time near a black hole flows very slowly, almost does not move.
- If you suddenly want to fly into another galaxy at near-light speed, a double black hole is a pair of black holes that revolve around each other. It is only necessary to alternately whirl in the orbit of these black holes - like a circus performer on a bicycle rides in a circle, balancing in order to maintain balance. Flying from one hole to another, the ship will pick up more and more speed. And when it becomes almost the speed of light, it will simply remain to leave the orbit and go to its goal - a planet or a star in a neighboring galaxy.
- Although the black hole contains no matter, it does have an event horizon. This is a kind of limiter through which nothing can leak out - not a radio signal, not even particles of light moving at super-speeds. Hence the word "black" in the title. However, Hawking's recent statement that matter does not fall into the hole, but remains on the event horizon, casts doubt on the idea that you cannot get out of a black hole.
- Inside a black hole, any substance is compressed to infinite density, and space and time are distorted to such an extent that they cease to exist. It is impossible to explain this with the help of the laws of physics we are used to.
- Supermassive black holes can be found in the centers of many galaxies and have masses about a billion times that of solar black holes. It is not yet known for certain exactly how they are formed. It is believed that they once began as solar-mass black holes that swallowed up many other stars in densely populated galactic centers and grew. Our Milky Way galaxy is no exception - in the center is the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A *
- Within the framework of the classical (non-quantum) theory of gravity, a black hole is an indestructible object. It constantly absorbs bodies and grows. However, Hawkin proved that black holes emit elementary particles, mainly photons, and due to this they lose mass, up to complete disappearance.
- First discovered by Stephen Hawking, the radiation emitted by a black hole is called Hawking radiation. This radiation has a temperature inversely proportional to the mass of the black hole: the smaller the black hole, the higher the temperature. The stellar and supermassive black holes that we know have temperatures well below the temperature of the microwave background and therefore are not observed.
- The theory of relativity allows the existence of Wormholes (Wormholes) - a feature of space-time, which is at each moment of time a "tunnel" in space. A black hole can be a wormhole - that is, transfer information to another universe.